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Associate Angles and the DPAs

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(now Pam Crane)

(A lecture given at the Lodge on llth March, 1974)

An Associate Angle is the most powerful form of Mundane Square; it is the axis which rises as a given factor (planet, Angle, Node, etc.) culminates—or the axis which culminates as a given factor rises—the axis which rises as a given factor reaches the Lower Meridian—or the axis which culminates as a given factor is setting. (Associate Angles are now better known as Paranatellonta, or Parans. Pam 2010.)

1.    To find the Associate Angles for each factor in the Chart:

The Associate Angles for each factor in the chart are found by examining the Tables of Houses for the natal or current latitude.

eg:       SUN Gemini 18° at Latitude 51° North is found to Culminate at ST 5h07m49s with an Associated ASC/DESC axis of 20°45' Virgo-Pisces, reaches the Lower Meridian at ST17h07m49s with an Associated ASC/DESC axis of 0°41' Pisces-Virgo, is found to Rise at ST 21h01m52s with an Associated MC/IC axis of 13° Aquarius-Leo, and is found to set at ST 13h13m51s with an Associated MC/IC axis of 20 ° Libra-Aries.

It follows that while the native remains in the latitude of his birth, the Associate Angles to each factor will remain constant.
However, should the native alter his latitude, whether permanently or temporarily, the Associate Angles will alter accordingly.

2.    Implications in the Birth-Chart:

It will be found in any birth-chart that a greater or lesser number of factors will lie on the Associate Angles of other natal factors.
These factors are not natally in mundane square to each other but repeatedly assume that relationship 

(i) Daily;
(ii) Annually as will be shown; and occasionally ...
(iii) ...by Progression of the natal angles each full year.

Angularity brings any factor into focus; its potential is released into the environment. Factors on Associate Angles, when brought into focus through the Diurnal or Annual cycles, will be activated simultaneously in the native's circumstances, subjectively or objectively. This implies a real relationship through this angular recurrence; the factors so linked give a constant cyclic impetus to the life.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO RE-EXAMINE THESE RELATIONSHIPS EACH TIME THE INDIVIDUAL CHANGES LATITUDE, FOR WHATEVER LENGTH OF TIME; in fact, Associate Angles should be tabulated for every degree of latitude the native is likely to occupy at any time, since new, and often very important relationships are formed between natal factors in this way.
It follows that one can bring factors into simultaneous effect at one's own volition by a deliberate change of latitude; this could have a marked bearing on the realisation of ambitions, health, private life, and general fortunes. Do we unconsciously choose our latitudes for these very reasons? It is interesting to speculate on these lines.

3.    Implications in the Progressed Chart:

As the individual develops, the planets alter their degrees and their inter-relationships by Secondary Progression.
Therefore each year (and with the Progressed Moon, each month), fresh relationships are formed through Associate Angles, and should be duly noted, as any such formation will have a special effect in that particular year (or month); also Progressed factors may come onto Natal Associate Angles, adding to the unique flavour of the period in question.

4.    The Mechanism:

(i) The Daily Cycle. - TRANSITING ANGLES.
Every moment each day is characterised by a particular pair of angular axes - the current ASC/DESC and MC/IC.
Whenever one of these corresponds to an axis upon which an individual's natal or progressed planet lies, that planet (or other factor) can be said to be, at that moment and latitude, angular. If the current Angles correspond to a pair of Associate Angles, that is if two of the native's natal or progressed factors can be said to be simultaneously angular, then their combined effect reigns over that moment, producing subjective states or inviting actual situations appropriate to their joint nature.

(ii) The Yearly Cycle. - THE DAILY PROGRESSED ANGLES or DPAs.
The same phenomenon occurs, not only at certain moments in each day, but also on certain days each year, in a regular cycle varying only in that each factor will come on to its Angle a day earlier each year.
This cycle is dependent on the Progressing of the Angles : not in the usual way which advances them a degree or so from their natal positions at the end of each day/year of life, but this time taking into account the salient fact that this annual advance follows on a complete rotation of the Earth about its axis during the corresponding day, thus bringing every degree in the Ecliptic onto the Angles over the course of the year. These will be referred to as the Daily Progressed Angles.

To ascertain the Daily Progressed Angles for any given date:

(This article was written long before personal computers came on the scene! These days an astrologer equipped with, for example, Solar Fire on a PC can very simply track the Daily Angles by choosing ‘Mean Quotidian’ to progress the MC, and adjust the Daily Ascendant for the current latitude. Pam, 2010 )

(a)   Using Maurice Silver's Progressed Aspect Calculator :
—Set date of birth against Sidereal Time at birth.
—In tables of Houses find the ST at which the natal Sun culminates.*
—Against this figure on the calculator read off the date: this is the Local Noon Date (as distinct from the generally used Noondate based on the Greenwich meridian). The closer the birth is to 0° longitude, the closer this date will approximate to the ordinary Noondate.
—Refer in the ephemeris to the progressed date corresponding to the year under examination, and note the degree of the progressed Sun. Find the ST at which this degree culminates.*
—Set the Local Noon Date against this ST.
—Against any required date during the given year, read off the ST and refer to Tables for the appropriate latitude to find the current DPMC and DPASC. On the birthday, these will be the ‘progressed angles’ as customarily used.

(b)   By Calculation :
—first method:
—Subtract ST at birth from ST of culmination of natal Sun* (if birth AM) or subtract ST of culmination of natal Sun from birth ST (if birth PM).
—Convert the resulting interval between birth and Local Noon into days, using Margaret Hone's Noondate chart conversion table.
—For AM birth, add this figure to the Day Number of the birthdate.
—For PM birth, subtract this figure from the Day Number of the birthdate. The result is the Local Noon Date.
—Find the interval in days between a required date in a given year and the Noon Date, convert to hours and minutes using Hone Tables, and add to or subtract from the ST of the culminating progressed Sun* as appropriate. From the result ascertain in Tables (as before) the DPMC and DPASC.
—second method:
—The interval in degrees and minutes is found between Sun and Midheaven in the natus.
AM births: subtract MC° from Sun° .
PM births: subtract result from natal Sun° .
—AM birth: add result to natal Sun°.
PM birth: subtract result from natal Sun°.Use this degree as the Local Noon Date by finding the date upon which it is occupied by the Sun each year. As this varies slightly, I would tend to take the date of occupancy in the year of birth.
—To find dates upon which given angles are operative, find the interval between their ST and the ST of the culminating progressed Sun*, convert the result to Signs, degrees and minutes (using Chester Kemp's conversion tables in his handbook ‘Progressions’) and add to or subtract from the Local Noon Date Degree.
—To find the DPAs on a given date, ascertain the Sun degree for that date, find the interval in Signs, degrees and minutes between it and the Local Noon Date Degree, convert this to hours and minutes using the Kemp tables, and add the result to or subtract it from the ST of the culminating progressed Sun* as appropriate.

In this way, * by examining the Daily Progressed Angles, dates can be noted each year upon which natal or progressed factors, or both in combination, are brought onto the Angles and thus into active prominence; and the periods can be ascertained when factors related through Associate Angles make their especial recurrent impact on the life.

*The Sidereal Time at Noon in the Ephemeris may be used in each case, but seems to yield slightly less accurate results. The Equation of Time may be involved in this discrepancy.

5.    Use of the Daily Progressed Angles in Rectification:

The method using the Calculator appears to give results accurate enough to warrant its use in rectification.
Where a birth-time is uncertain, the Midheaven may be ascertained to within a degree with the aid of the following techniques:
Choose a year, or a number of years in the native's life which have been strongly marked by definite events whose dates are certain. Using the given approximate birth-time (usually plus or minus an hour at most) examine the resulting Daily Progressed Angles for the dates concerned. Where they lie within a number of degrees from significant* axes, adjust the Calculator so that the relevant date meets the Sidereal Time giving the exact Angles that would correspond with the occurrence.
Refer next to the Birth-date's position on the dial; the corresponding Sidereal Time is that which gives the annual progression of the Angles of the chart, the ‘Progressed Ascendant’ and ‘Progressed MC’. This figure will not have altered. Take careful note of the new ST, and move the dial so that the Progressed Date for the year under examination meets this Progressed ST. With the dial thus finally set, read off the Sidereal Time against the Birth-date - this is the rectified Sidereal Time at Birth.
A thorough examination of the Progressed positions by this method could prove very reliable and useful.
* It must not be forgotten that an axis may gain its significance from the presence of either a natal OR a progressed factor on the axis, and sometimes in strong aspect to the axis, e.g. square to it.

(This still proves to be one of the most accurate methods of rectification in our toolbox. But oh how much easier now that we can instantly assess and adjust charts on screen!!! Pam 2010.)

6.    DPA Arcs:

Bearing in mind that the Angles are in a constant state of progression, it follows that they are continuously extending arcs to their Radices. Directions by Solar Arc are now commonly practised; I would add as relevant in particular contexts directions by all other planetary arcs that alter swiftly enough to be effective - e.g. Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and the Dragon’s Head - also therefore the arcs of Ascendant and Midheaven, by both annual and daily progression. The aspects thus formed to the Radix extend the understanding of current conditions.

7.    Synastry and the Associate Angles:

It will be found that in the comparison of connected charts, the Associate Angles form significant links between them. The logic of this can be seen when it is appreciated that each time a factor comes into Angular prominence in the daily and yearly cycles, co-prominent will be the degrees on the Associate axis, and since events tend to involve other people, these degrees frequently signify the persons concerned. In such ways are lives linked.
This may go some way to explaining why people ‘drift apart’ when they move from one another's area; changes of latitude alter the associate angles and therefore alter one's natural links to individuals or to interests; only very strong radical ties can compensate for this and maintain any real degree of involvement.
Very marked ties through the Associate Angles may be found between Man and Wife, for example, and between lovers. The nature of the factors involved will greatly clarify the significance of the relationship. Days upon which certain aspects of a relationship will be thrown into prominence can be ascertained through the Daily Progressed Angles. Additionally, times during each day when this is most liable to occur can be found simply by finding the hour and minute that corresponds to the given Sidereal Time for the Angularity.

Should the same hour, or day, bring strong axes into focus in both charts
(1) if they are together there will be pronounced interaction according to the principles brought into play;
(2) if they are apart they are likely - if the Angles mutually associate - to have each other very markedly in mind, resulting in ‘telepathic’ phenomena, telaesthesia, and so forth, or in activity on each other's behalf (a familiar example being that of letters crossing in the Post!);
(3) if they haven't met yet, and paths cross, they very likely will.

8.    Periodicities:

It is axiomatic that ‘it never rains but it pours’. Periods of a few days are characterised by patches of recurring similar events. Particular times of the year see the return of similar types of occurrence or physical symptom, or psychological state. In medicine, many diseases are well known to exhibit their symptoms at regular intervals - often at approximately the same time each day. The duration of an infection or other temporary disability is rarely long enough for a variation in this type of periodicity to become apparent, and it may well be confirmed through more extensive research that such rhythms depend largely on the angularity of the relevant factor in the natus, either in the Daily Cycle, in the manner previously explained, or in the Yearly Cycle, by Daily Progression of the Angles.

An interesting hint in this direction is given by the recent studies of the Time-sense in volunteers confined for varying stretches of time in caverns or planned isolation; the individual's ‘Day’ in each case gradually deviated from the normal. Some days were longer than the norm, some shorter. This suggests that a personal psychological adjustment has been made from the mean solar day to the Sidereal day, measured by the regular rising, culminating and setting of the natal Sun and other factors, or perhaps to the Apparent Solar Day, which is, according to season, either longer or shorter than the Mean Solar Day by which the clocks of society are set. Another thing to consider here is that there may be a regression by the subject to the experience of Apparent Solar Time during the crucial weeks after birth that form the temporal matrix for development; there may even be a subtle mechanism in the psyche by which the true, individual ‘day’ is one-365th of the day corresponding to the Progressed year.

Another well-known phenomenon is the regular symptom of pregnancy popularly called ‘morning sickness’. It is also possible to experience this as Evening Sickness, being right as rain in the morning - it is nonetheless regular. It would be helpful to examine the transiting Angles of the Daily Cycle in a large number of pregnancies to see if the consequent angularity of natal or progressed factors indeed accounts for this.
The recurrence of the symptoms of malaria should be investigated in terms of the Daily Progressed Angles of the Yearly Cycle, and perhaps - in fact it appears rather likely from observations to date - the daily planetary directions formed by their arcs to Radix.
A period of several years would see a number of such repetitions while additional triggering conditions prevailed through progressed or transiting aspects; the disappearance of ‘trigger factors’ would tend to lessen the annual effect of the relevant angular factor(s), and thus it would happen that apparently unavoidable yearly bouts of allergy can mysteriously cease to trouble a previously chronic sufferer, and even that more serious disabilities, manifesting in daily peaks of activity, might be found to come and go without any apparent cause or cure. These hypotheses are worth testing; if proved valid, they could provide valuable insights into the nature and rhythm of disease.

The Daily Cycle holds further implications: observations of the time of angularity of bodies such as Sun, Mars, and Jupiter could greatly encourage the less sylph-like among us to keep up our exercises! . . . The emphasis is laid of course on the need to exercise regularly; but this regularity is commonly based on the 24 hours of Civil Time, by the clock, instead of the 24 hours of Sidereal Time. How much more inclined one is to stretch the legs and flex the muscles with Jupiter inspiring from an Angle!
From experience so far, a factor Rising or Culminating in the Daily Cycle (i.e., conjunct a transiting Angle) tends to express itself at that time positively, while a setting body, or one at the Lower Meridian, tends to be expressed negatively.

Thus, for example, there is a strong tendency to ‘wake up’ as the natal or progressed Sun-degree rises (and in the night this often means literally waking from sleep at otherwise ungodly hours!), while the same degree setting or at the 1C inclines one to tiredness and a desire to rest or sleep.

Mars on the Ascendant promotes an influx of energy that will either facilitate work, or stimulate the sexual drive, or provoke an aggressive mood and arguments. Mars on the Descendant or the IC tends to drain the energies at a moment when they are felt to be needed; effort is required.

Culminating Jupiter frequently marks a moment of high optimism, or of actual expenditure; there is the feeling of extravagance in the purchase made at this point in the Daily Cycle, but accompanied by the hope or knowledge that one has made a Good Buy, and that the thing will last and continue to give pleasure.

Mercury rising? - the phone rings, the Post comes, visitors arrive, letters get written, errands are run . . . etc., etc. Or one may feel at one's most talkative at that moment of the day, if conditions are not otherwise conducive to floods of people and mail.

The angularity of Saturn generally slows one up, reminds one of one's responsibilities.

Neptune can be the culprit at those moments when everything itches and there is no apparent reason . . .

The above are a few examples of the effects one can expect of these cyclic angularities.
Furthermore, the rising of someone else's Sun, natal Angles, or other significator, brings them to mind (given supporting conditions) at a particular time of day and no other, especially if there is a strong contact between the individuals through the degree in question.


On April 22nd there was a New Moon in 2½° Taurus. The following day I had a definite inclination to do something I had put off for 12 days - namely to re-examine a booklist and choose a few volumes of C. G. Jung that I felt it was time to read.
Checking the ST afterwards, Leo 6° was on the Ascendant, a degree-area closely shared by Jung's natal Sun in 3°19' Leo, and Pluto at the time of my own birth. A postscript to this: it occurred to me to check the ST at which this paragraph is being written, and sure enough, Leo 6° has not long risen, still only a degree from the current Ascendant.
A similar phenomenon occurs, as previously suggested, in the Yearly Cycle: a relationship which related mainly to a close conjunction in 1° Cancer in my friend's chart, and which ended nearly two years ago after a change of location, came into the forefront of my mind only recently. The Daily Progressed Ascendant at the time was 1° Capricorn. Emphasising this was the current transit of Saturn in 1° Cancer; its effect was to set me thinking back to the unhappier aspects of this relationship (my friend nearly died once) and worrying about the family's present circumstances.
This presence of transiting Saturn on the Daily Progressed Desc. led to a general preoccupation with the subject of death for a couple of days. Not only was it on my own mind, but a letter arrived that further obliged me to focus on the subject, objectively. The initiator of the chain of circumstances leading to the receipt of this letter has the Sun on the same axis. Previously major correspondence from myself on this subject occurred on a day when Jupiter was on this axis and Venus in square to it; my D.Prog.1C was conjunct radical Mercury, and the corresponding ASC square to natal Sun; a good deal of thought and writing was involved.


1st time: 7/8th November 1972. Owner’s DPMC square Transiting New Moon in 14°  Scorpio the previous day; DPASC square natal Pluto; (T. Moon opp. natal Saturn).
2nd time: 27th April 1974. Owner’s DPMC square transiting New Moon in 2° Taurus on 22nd; DPMC also opp. natal Pluto; DPASC conjunct natal Saturn.


1st February 1971. X's DPMC in 25°  Sagittarius conjunct transiting Venus and square to MC radix; DPASC square to natal Sun and opp. natal Mars. ( plus many other supporting factors.)
DPASC Arc directs Pluto to Sun, Neptune to p.Asc., MC to p.Moon, Moon to p.Node.
DPMC Arc directs Pluto to p.Sun, Moon to p.Mars, Pluto to Asc, Asc to Uranus, Jupiter to Mars, Mars to Sun, Sun to Jupiter p. (The woman was actively pursuing him on that day.)

Another woman, Y, had a telaesthetic experience through this; she had been close to X for a number of years, but had not seen him for some time because of the conflicting attachment. On the night of February 1st she shared the sensations of the unconscious man as his stomach was pumped free of its noxious contents, only able to sleep after being unaccountably sick at the time he was pronounced out of danger - 4 a.m. on the 2nd.
X's DPMC was conjunct her natal Mars (and the transiting Venus), trine to her N.Node. His DPASC was square to her natal MC (which is radically conjunct his Sun).
Y's DPMC put her natal Sun at the DPIC, also being close to his radical Pluto/Asc conjunction, and his p.Sun, and square to his radical and p.Uranus.
Her DPASC , exactly = Sun/Moon radix,  square to natal Jupiter, and also sesqui-quadrate to radical Saturn, lay square to p.Moon opp. T Mercury. (Also for the record, T Mars was opp. natal Saturn (and conjunct an exact Jupiter conj. Neptune transit) in very close trine to natal Pluto, which had been opposed by the January New Moon).
The hour of X's recovery found his Pluto/Asc./p.Sun degree on the Ascendant - and Y's Sun on the 7th; in short, his Angles were radix by transit in the Daily Cycle: he had been brought back to life.


October 6th 1973. Israel's DPMC in 29° Sag/0° Capricorn, DPASC in 29° Pisces, both = radical Saturn/Pluto, Saturn/Node. Their joint Arc directs Mercury to Mars, Mars to Saturn, Sun to Pluto, Saturn to Moon.
The above Midpoint relationship applies even more strongly to the progressed positions of the same factors, and p.Moon is at the DPIC.
The involvement of the Moon is clarified by the events of 15th May 1974, when 30 youngsters died at a school at Ma'alot near the Lebanon border after being held hostage by three Arab terrorists.
Israel's DPMC was square to the New Moon of April 22nd, and the DPASC was square to this axis, opp. the New Moon degree. DPMC conjunct Israel's radical Moon, DPASC square to it. T Pluto aspected the DP angles by trine and semi-sextile.
DP Angle arcs directed Neptune to Moon, Moon 1° before Mars (that might account for the speedy reprisal the following day) and Saturn to Mercury.
Transiting MC for the approximate time of the deaths was 18½° Leo, conjunct p.Saturn, and the T ASC in 13° Scorpio conjunct South Node radix and progressed with a close square to natal and p.Pluto up in the T MC with Saturn.


Both Spike Milligan and his wife were taken before the Law on May 14th 1974 for different reasons (although worry and its subsequent tensions may well have contributed to Spike's misdemeanour).
Mrs. Milligan was attending an inquest on the death of a pedestrian from pneumonia two weeks after her car went out of control in a skid and collided with him (verdict: accidental death).
Mr. Milligan was taken to Whetstone Police Station near his home at 6h30 pm BST to be charged approximately two hours later with unlawful assault on a 16-year-old boy, occasioning actual bodily harm.
DPMC was square the T ASC of the charge (if time reasonably accurate) and conjunct natal ASC (21½ °- 23°55 Aquarius) in Spike's nativity. DPASC in Gemini 27° was conjunct the Midpoint of natal Moon/S. Node and within 3° of square to p.Mars, focussing the emotional suffering, the wife's unhappiness, and the outbreak of violent reaction on the youngster. (Also current was a p.Jupiter/S. Node conjunction in 22° Gemini; and on February 16th1974, he had his Nodal Return in 25° Sag., conjunct T Moon, which proceeded to oppose Saturn in 27° Gemini.) Mars in 24° Taurus lay square to natal ASC, and this degree was in the Descendant at the time of the charge, occupying the ASC, by 1°, of his ordinary annual p.chart. T MC of the charge in approximately 13° Virgo lay conjunct natal Mars, opp. Venus and square radical Jupiter, with T Jupiter at the T IC. (T Moon was also conjoining r.Uranus.)


By Daily Progressed Angle Arc on 16 dates during each year either Sun is directed to Moon or Moon to Sun by conjunction, opposition or square. Here is the Diary of an Astrologer according to the Daily Progressed New Moons and the other contacts formed by the same arcs, notably Mercury/Node and Uranus/MC! . . .
Sept. 10th - 11th '71  First Conference (Cambridge), first meeting with members of Astrological Association.
Oct. 10th '71    First meeting with a subsequently influential lady.
Oct. 13th '71    (By a different DPArc from the above.)  First visit to the above lady's home.
Dec. 4th  '71    First attendance at an A.A. Dinner.
March 11th '72    First fee-paid professional consultation.
April 8th '72       Passed Faculty examination.
April 10th '72     (Different Arc) Acquired stock of paper for analyses.
May 19th ‘72    First, traumatic, and only visit to a Bridge Club!
June 6th ‘72    Important personal day.
June 26th ‘72    A significant reunion.
July 10th ‘72    (By two separate arcs.) Conversion Day!  i.e. North Sea Gas laid on (also side of house painted yellow.) Eclipse also, conjunct natal Jupiter. At exact moment of Eclipse letter despatched from close friend just arrived overseas - v. important letter. Gas conversion finished by Noon on l lth just as natal Neptune on T. ASC. New phase in personal matters.
August 10th ‘72    Final contact with very old and close friend as paths diverge.
Sept. 8th ‘72    A.A. Conference again.   St John's Cambridge.
Sept. 10th ‘72    Last day of A.A. Conf. (different arc) - article commissioned; met new friend on way to the dining room.
October 10th ‘72    Back to Cambridge—first "public" lecture to group of students, etc. Peculiar visit. (DPMC opp. natal Neptune.)
October 13th ‘72    (Different arc.) End of same visit; ideas for fresh article; joined Guild.
Dec. 2nd/ 3rd ‘72     "Astrologers' Feast" - B.B.C. there; offered more work.
January 13th ‘73    Invited to a weekend symposium at Oxford, by friends at R.E.R.U.   New phase in self-appraisal.
Sept. 8th & 9th ‘73    A.A. Conf. Guildford; accepted new job (nearly two); met new friend on way to dining room.

The New Moons in this case are very active, involving a fair group of simultaneous directions. Where such DPArc New Moons lack this kind of support, look to those DP Angles that bring the greatest number of chart factors into active contact by Arc Direction.
The method of directing the Angles is to add the interval between ASC radix and DPASC, and MC radix and DPMC, to all other factors. The easiest method is by use of the 90° dial with superimposed disc, marking the positions of natal factors on both. ASC or MC on the disc is turned to the degree of DPASC or DPMC on the dial, so that resulting direct or indirect contacts can be seen straight away. To find the DPAngles relating to "New Moons", set (i) Sun to Moon, (ii) Moon against Sun. Where ASC and MC lie, the degree against each on the dial is the direct or indirect DP axis, in Cardinal, Fixed, or Mutable Signs. Reference to the appropriate Cardinal, Fixed, or Mutable degrees culminating or rising in the House Tables will give Associate Angles for the day in question, the day being determined either by the degree on the MC or the ST at which it culminates, according to the method preferred. The Progressed Aspect Calculator again proves invaluable for quick working.


Uncertainty over Nixon's exact birth-time means that the following figures may be a few degrees to either side, and an exercise in rectification may be appropriate. Taking the DPAngles found on the basis of the accepted natal Angles (14°42' Gemini MC, 16°01' Virgo ASC) - which turn out to be DPMC Capricorn 16°, DPASC Aries 28°, for the Latitude of Washington - the DPAngle Arcs are examined. MC to DPMC gives us yet another example of the DP Arc New Moon: Sun contacts Moon, Uranus comes to Venus, Saturn to Pluto, Jupiter to Uranus. ASC to DPASC brings Node to Moon, Uranus to MC ( also 1° from ASC ) and Moon to Jupiter.
Given the significance of the New Moon, and of such Arc contacts as we find here so suggestive of the change of fortunes, vast publicity, and the struggle to maintain authority, it would seem that the natal angles have been reasonably established.
The DPMC of 16° Capricorn for 17/6/72 puts his natal Sun a few degrees from the axis, balanced on the other side by p.Jupiter in Capricorn 13°. T Uranus in 14° Libra squares the axis, opposed by p.Moon in Aries.
DPASC in 28° Aries, squared by T Node on the nonagesimal, = natal midpoint Uranus/Neptune, each only 4° from the axis. P.Venus is conjunct natal Uranus. What a picture of persistent, cock-eyed, dogged optimism amidst upheaval and unsavoury company!
The DPAngles for the USA* are as follows: DPASC 14½° Scorpio, DPMC 24° Leo (= Nixon's natal Moon/Saturn; the DPASC is exactly square to his p.Mars. This is an example of DPAngles describing the principal actors in the daily scenario).
Far more is gained from the DPAngle Arcs; the DPMC nicely gives us Neptune to Ascendant, Saturn to Sun, Pluto to ruling Mercury. And with the DPASC we come to another New Moon as Moon comes to Sun, Saturn to Uranus, Pluto to Mars-Neptune (square natally, the two latter bodies) and Venus' influence moves away from MC where she stood the previous day. A tough nut for the U.S.A. to crack.
Not possessing an adequate ephemeris, I am unable to offer the correlations with the USA progressed map. (So many years to wait!!! Pam, 2010)

* USA chart as given in ‘Astrology’ by Louis MacNiece.


This time we will look at the USA DPAngles and Arcs first. On 22nd October, 1963, at the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the angles (coincidence?) were precisely those which push such as Richard Nixon into the political picture: DPMC Capricorn 20° (1° from his Sun) and DPASC 2½° Taurus (conjunct his Uranus). Had JFK survived, indeed, the present US President might have had to be satisfied with a less exalted post, or waited for far longer than he did.
These angles bear no striking relationship to the USA radix; but the DPMC arc brings precisely the same conditions to bear as ruled Watergate, with the difference that Pluto sits snugly in aspect to ASC/Mars (these are conjunct), less close to Neptune, and Venus is still directed to MC.
DPASC brings the USA Sun-Saturn square into contact with MC, Pluto to Uranus, Jupiter to Moon, and two noticeable contacts through 45° multiples: Neptune to ASC and Pluto to Mercury, the ruler of the USA map.
( At the killing of Robert Kennedy on June 5th,1968, again the DPASC  - for Washington -  duplicated previous Arc contacts, i.e. those just outlined, since it was again in 2° of Fixed signs - Scorpio on this occasion.)
The DPMC in Leo 8° creates indirect contacts between Uranus and Jupiter, MC and Neptune, with Mercury direct to Jupiter. It must be remembered that both deaths occurred on days of hectic political activity and public excitement in the States, hence the necessary appearance of Jupiter in these patterns.
The most striking configuration found when examining the charts of the two brothers is that each was shot just as the progressed Mars was conjoined to the DPASC for the latitude of death - and in each case this was approximately 34° North.
Moreover, John Kennedy's p.Mars and DPASC precisely duplicated the USA natal configuration in 20° Gemini. Only 4° above that axis lay his natal Venus, ruler of the 8th; T Mars and Venus opposed the DPASC from 20° and 21° Sagittarius. T Sun squared DPMC in ½° Pisces from the last degree of Scorpio.
The Arcs taken from these DPAngles act not only on his own natus, but of course in coming to certain degrees affect the USA chart very strongly . . .
DPMC directs the Node (conjunct the USA Sun) to Mars (conjunct the USA Moon) thus linking the USA ‘New Moon’ - already established through its own DPMC arc - with the fateful destiny of its President. His Sun (conjunct the USA Uranus) semi-square MC move into contact with the USA Saturn, recently squared by the T Node, and also by the Lunar eclipse of July 6th. Neptune contacts the T Mercury-Uranus square, exact that day. Moon and Venus (ruler of MC in 11th  square ruler of 8th  in house 8) come to MC on the dial, fulfilling the promise of public death. The USA ASC/Mars degree is brought to the opposition of JFK's Saturn and the USA Pluto.
DPASC directs Neptune to Pluto, Mars to Asc, the exact conjunction of p.Uranus and s.Jupiter to MC, and the Moon/Venus square to T Saturn.
(Intriguingly, with Robert Kennedy's degrees plotted on the same dial, this Arc gives him a New Moon - Sun to the Moon/Node opposition - and also brings Saturn to MC.)
The DPASC for the latitude of birth also carries great significance; for Pluto comes to the Sun, Node and USA Sun to the Moon, USA Saturn to USA ASC, Saturn to Pluto, Mars to MC.

Turning next to the DP conditions for Robert Kennedy, we find that his destiny may come as a direct consequence of his brother's death ... for his natal angles correspond to the DP Angles of the USA on November 22nd, 1963, except for an extra 4° on the ASC in Taurus 6 °. That his MC should match Nixon's Sun is also interesting.
Once again the T Sun squared the DPMC - in Virgo 15 ° - from Gemini. T Pluto in 20° Virgo conjoined it by 5°.
In Massachusetts, at the birth latitude, his natal Sun degree was rising.
The DPMC, coming to the square of Ricard Nixon's (yet another link in the chain of consequences?) directs Saturn to Pluto, Neptune to Jupiter (ruler of 8th ) and Uranus to Saturn - all pointing to the cruelty of the underhand and sudden, shocking killing. The USA Sun degree is brought simultaneously to Uranus in its chart, its Mercury to Mars/ASC, Pluto to Neptune, Moon to Saturn, Neptune to Moon.
.... and on the same dial, the same Arc draws into contact JFK's Uranus and ASC, Node and Sun, ASC and Venus. Could this be the picture of a reunion? ....
DPASC directs Robert Kennedy's Sun to T Uranus, and Uranus to MC; Moon/Node comes to Neptune (and the USA MC), while Neptune moves to Uranus and the USA Mars/Neptune. T Neptune was a mere 10' from an exact square to radix, repeating its 4° orb radical affliction to the natal Sun in an approaching conjunction. It rules RK's 12th, in which is found Uranus, ruler of the 11th. It suggests conspiracy, possibly a shocking betrayal by someone previously trusted, with natal Neptune in the 5th in Leo. Whose ambition would so ruthlessly despatch a rival on the American political scene? And has it paid off, one wonders . . . With T Mars back on the USA Mars/ ASC, closing to a disastrous square with T Pluto in 20° Virgo, it was a heavy turn of events for the United States the day that Robert Kennedy was killed.


A very different picture is painted by the DP conditions of England (1066 map used) on the day of the wedding of HRH Princess Anne Windsor to Captain Mark Phillips.
England's p. Sun in approximately 25° Gemini brought the DPMC to 8° Taurus (square natal ruling Mars) and DPASC to 22° Leo (Princess Anne's exact natal Sun, and square the 1066 Neptune; no wonder she was frequently described as a ‘fairy-tale Princess’!). The transiting Sun was on the MC exactly as the couple were pronounced Man and Wife, in the 22nd degree of Scorpio, square to this DPASC axis. T Pluto was ½° semi-square to the T Sun/MC, so at their midpoint with Anne's Sun.
The DPASC Arc draws England's MC to Mars, the Moon/ Uranus square to Venus, Jupiter to MC, Mars to Jupiter; the DPMC Arc brings Sun to Mars, Mars indirect to ASC, and Jupiter indirect to Neptune.
Anne's DPMC for the day is 1° square to p.Venus, her DPASC square to the 1066 ASC from 21½° Capricorn and semi-square T Neptune.
The DPMC Arc, bringing Sun to Moon, gives her the expected ‘New Moon’ by direction; p.Sun conjoins this, and also England's Neptune, on the dial. Her Moon contacts the axis of T Pluto, and the Node the 1066 ASC. Uranus touches the English Venus, her Neptune England's Mars, while the degrees of England's Sun and Venus contact her Mars and Sun respectively.
The DPASC Arc brings Venus to the ASC, Mars to Venus, Sun to p.Pluto, Moon indirect to ASC, ASC to the 1066 ASC as already noted; her Mars/MC square configures England's Venus; Pluto contacts her new husband's Venus degree, Jupiter his Saturn, Venus his Mercury, Node (indirect) his Mars, and their Neptunes conjoin on a romantic and elegant occasion that captured the imagination of the world.
How do we fare with the bridegroom, however, since his birth-time is only known approximately - between 01h00 and 02h00 am BST on September 22nd, 1948, in Tewkesbury?
It has been suggested that his Ascendant might lie in Cancer 28° conjunct Anne's natal Venus, with an MC of 2° Aries. Working on this assumption, the Local Noon Date (LND) is March 22nd, and the resulting DPMC for November 14th, 1973, is in 19½° Gemini, with 22° Virgo rising. This latter degree is only 7° from Mark's natal Sun; on such an important and spectacular day in his life, it would make far more sense for his Sun to be on the DPASC. This would occur at DPST 5h55m approximately. The wedding date moved up to this ST position on the calculator dial gives as the new LND against his Progressed Noon Sidereal Time on October 16th 1948, the date of March 12th. This date moved back to the ST at Noon on his birthday alters the natal ST against his birthdate of September 22nd to 00h50m, about 42 minutes later than the original time. Thus the new birthtime would be at 00h55m GMT, with MC at 14 ° Aries, and ASC in Leo 5¾°.
Confirmation is forthcoming; on the wedding-day T Jupiter in 5°42' Aquarius shone on the marriage cusp of this Ascendant, in close square to Mark's p. Node in Taurus 5° 26' and in close semi-square to his natal Jupiter in 21°08' Sagittarius. At the time of the ceremony, the Transiting Moon was setting in close square to the new MC degree from 15° Cancer. T Pluto lay sextile to the Leo ASC from 5°58' Libra. Natal Saturn sesquiquadrate this MC from 0°20' Virgo would explain much of his modesty and reticence, and willingness to concede precedence to his wife, despite the potential contradiction from Jupiter sesquiquadrate the Leo Ascendant; but the young couple admitted in interview that this concession was limited to their public life, and did not apply in private!
Additionally Captain Phillips’ appearance is far more in accordance with the early degrees of Leo than the last of Cancer; my personal observations of those born with early Leo prominent confirm that they possess a physiognomy to which Princess Anne's husband conforms. Similar characteristics are shared by the same area of the other fixed signs, and are emphasised in Mark by the Moon's square to the ASC from Taurus 8°, conjunct the Node in Taurus 6°. This last configuration pinpoints the important role played by Woman in shaping his destiny and dictating his own role in public life.
Both Mark's DP Angles for his marriage fall in 29° of Mutable signs, if the above workings are accepted; thus his natal Sun-degree rises as the 1066 Moon sets in Pisces with Anne's p.North Node. At the DPIC is the 1066 Uranus, 2° from the transiting Node; the T South Node is close to the DPMC with Anne's natal North Node and Mark's natal Uranus. Mark's natal Venus/Pluto conjunction configures both DP angles from their midpoint in Leo, to which his natal Mars lies square by 1½°.


To bring the new-found natal MC by its DPArc to the DPMC is also to bring the p.Moon on to the DPMC, since it was on the place of the natal MC in 13+° Aries - and at the same time the natal Moon is drawn into contact (by square) with Mark's p.Sun, which, in 23+° Libra, simultaneously configures the N.Node that has moved round with the Moon. Anne's natal Sun degree now lies opposite the midpoint of Mark's natal Moon/Node conjunction, while her Venus opposes his natal MC and p.Moon. Her Moon aspects his natal MC by sesquiquadrate. Her N.Node comes into square with her p.Sun; his natal Sun comes to her Moon, and their Venus's lie in square. All this corresponds with the effects of the 1066 Solar Arc, which additionally brings the English Venus into contact with the T Moon/ASC of the ceremony, while its Neptune comes to DPMC and Mars, and its Jupiter contacts DPASC and Neptune . . . echoing the significance of the triple grand conjunction of Jupiter and Neptune that transited in 1971, affecting all three maps.
The DPASC Arc gives a ‘New Moon’ as having occurred three days previously, and brings Jupiter opposite Venus, as Saturn comes to the degree of the p.Sun, with the appropriate mixture of joy and duty. T Pluto aspects Mark's Mars/Venus midpoint, and T Venus squares Pluto now in 9° of Cardinals. The radical Suns of the wedding couple are conjoined by this arc, as they appear on the dial, Mark's Sun squaring Anne's Sun and the 1066 DPASC from the degree of the T Sun and MC in 21½° Scorpio. As if to point to the line of Duty, the 1066 Sun stands opposite Capt. Phillips' p.Saturn, and its Venus opposite Anne's; Anne's Sun squares the Transiting Moon/ASC, 'conjunct her natal Neptune at her husband's Imum Coeli.

This example should serve to point out the usefulness of this system in rectification where the time of birth is known only within hours or so; in conjunction with other established techniques, it should make the task of Angular adjustment considerably more efficient.


Here is an example of a subject in whom the Associate Angles for the birth latitude appear to have predominated on the three key dates offered for examination.
The first was the first meeting with a spiritual teacher who affected him profoundly. Progressed Pluto was exactly on the DPIC opposite p.Mars and the transiting Moon's North Node at the DPMC in 2½° Aquarius. The natal Moon-Pluto opposition was also nearly aligned with this axis. Rising was p.Uranus, a few minutes from its radical place. Use, in this case, of the natal latitude instead of the current latitude, brought Uranus and the DPASC very tightly together.
On the second occasion, a visit to a holy place, T Moon was at the DPIC, opposite radical Venus and Sun, a few degrees from DPMC. No special bodies occupied the corresponding DPASC, but for the birth latitude again this moved back to contact the transiting Sun and oppose p.Uranus ... the reverse of the horizon axis on the first occasion.
On the day when the subject wrote to an astrologer, discussing current plans, the DPIC was close to radical and p.Uranus - though not tightly conjunct - while the ‘local’ DPASC touched nothing of significance unless the trine to the same Uranus is taken into account. The DPASC for the natal latitude, however, brings the radical Moon-Pluto opposition exactly on to the horizon; this Moon rising precisely opposite the Pluto degree of the astrologer.

What is one to infer from this? . ..

Perhaps both types of DPA are effective, each in a particular context - much as may be argued for divers house systems. There is a clear contrast here with the inarguable validity of the current ‘local’ DPASC in the Kennedy assassinations. It may be that in such circumstances the factors of Time and Place are more crucial than in the context of inner, spiritual experience, even where travel and appointment are involved. Such a question demands much thought, and careful work.


The Associate Angles add point to certain character-traits, in the way that these are manifested throughout life.
Here is a man who is self-confessedly unique - at least among his immediate fellows; he is uninterested in any form of physical sex, is blessed with a most fertile imagination and encyclopaedic mind, is an idealist and a dreamer, yet a great realist, is basically anti-social ( while having a talent for the understanding and handling of people ) and is apparently totally without ambition or anything much in the way of material aspiration. He is given to depression since concentration on any one thing is virtually impossible, and he lacks a sense of definite purpose. All these traits can be recognised as belonging to a highly mutable type with a weak Mars and a prominent Saturn/Uranus/ Neptune influence; but they are also emphasised in the following Associate Angles:

Sun ASC/Pluto 1C (sense of personal fatedness, manipulation.)

Mercury +Jupiter  MC/Neptune  ASC  (confusion  in  any  attempt  to  apply his mind to career status, individual growth, etc.)

Venus IC/Mercury DESC (enjoys discussion comfortably and happily at home with his wife, but few others, and rarely elsewhere unless on his own ‘territory’.)

Mars relates to no other factor through Associate Angles.
Saturn ASC/MC MC: Saturn MC/N. Node ASC: Saturn DESC/ Neptune MC: Saturn IC/Pluto DESC. ( He feels a strong sense of responsibility in his work, yet also that he is not here to fulfil any personal ambition; duty towards his partner means a certain amount of personal self-sacrifice. He is disinclined to participate in society or close relationships. His wife's commitments mean he often has to forego the usual domestic comforts, and assist in keeping the home in order.)

Uranus ASC/MC MC: Uranus MC/N. Node ASC: Uranus DESC/ Neptune MC: Uranus IC/MC ASC. ( Attempts to establish order are disrupted; his concentration ruined; he still feels that something unique should await him. When his wife shows her independence, he supports her, according to his highest principles, yet he feels even more adrift personally, dreams, and allows his own order to disintegrate. Whenever he examines his progress, he inclines to think of changing direction dramatically - and has done; these same AAs were the DPAs when he finally made an important location change in his job and settled in a new area.)

Jupiter IC/Neptune DESC.  (Natally square, these AAs come into operation again in the intimate environment; he would be happier at home with a dream partner, and is often far more content when the reality vanishes about her own business and he can stretch himself in comfort. One year this pair of AAs actually brought his soulmate two days running. They were very good days.)

Neptune IC/ brings Mars weakly into contact with the ASC. ( One of the very few things he will fight for is the cohesion of the family; a sense of disintegration shortens his temper and bolsters his determination. Otherwise, his own impatience and haste, and lack of consistent application create more mess and disorder than putting things to rights once more. One year saw self-confidence bolstered by news of definite success in application for a new post in his Neptunian job dealing with the anti-social element in society, at a moment of much tidying, gardening and painting. The previous year he was also painting in the house and trying to cope with a domestic threat. The year before that, the house was full of poets and painting and a local journalist. In such circumstances he escapes into Do-It-Himself until things have reverted to something approaching normal.)

Examples have been drawn from the yearly cycle in these cases; but it must not be forgotten that each day sees the Associate Angles operative as they are touched in turn by the transiting Angles; hence these character-traits are focussed potentially every day - especially when additional progressed or transiting factors are involved. A key factor to remember is that any AAs focussed during daylight have a chance to manifest openly; whereas those stimulated during the hours of sleep may either condition the dream-life of the subject, or have no noticeable contribution to make to the day whatsoever. A Suggestion for Research is that those investigating the dream-state by means of EEG traces in volunteers under observation should take careful note of the times at which dreams occur, and their remembered content if the volunteer is wakened; the transiting Angles (and DPAs) could then be ascertained and examined for relevant contacts to natal or progressed factors, the transiting bodies also being taken into account.

Another look at Associate Angles in Synastry:


Here are the AA contacts between one man and his wife; the man's planet is the first  (bold) factor in the pair, the second is the wife's.
Sun ASC/Pluto 1C. Sun IC/Venus ASC. ( His sense of personal identity is strongly conditioned by her effect on his roots and domestic life and deepest compulsions. She is happy when he is home and sharing the family duties; he is most inclined to oblige when she takes the trouble to be her most feminine—or when it is obvious she is acting temporarily as breadwinner.)
Mercury (opp.)/Mars. ( Whenever he is communicative, she is always ready to stimulate by encouragement or argument; whenever she feels physically roused, he is more inclined to either mental/ verbal communion, or to Do something together ... on the other hand, he has a very communicative touch.)
Venus ASC/Moon 1C. Venus MC/Venus DESC. Venus DESC/ Mercury 1C. Venus IC/Mars ASC. ( The strength of the actual love-relationship can be seen emphasised here; his affectionate nature brings out her womanly and feminine responses, her desire nature, her drive and enthusiasm and industry. It is a key to the relationship, and when this Ruling Venus is afflicted, the equilibrium of the marriage can be difficult to sustain.)
Saturn-Uranus ASC/Sun MC. Saturn-Uranus IC/Sun ASC. ( This corresponds with the wife's Sun occupying the degree of the man's MC. Her dominance in either the sphere of career or of personality brings tension and disturbance into his personal life which continually demands resolution. The more his problems beset him, the more she feels her own strength by contrast. Yet it is his individual decision not to inhibit her; and he does on occasion act as a guide and mentor. She has brought great changes into his life at times.)
Pluto DESC/Saturn 1C. Pluto IC/Saturn ASC. ( The man's Saturn is also involved here, being fairly close to his wife's. His marital destiny seems to be to have to put up with his wife's periodic absence or indisposition. The second pair of mutually associated angles manifested two years in succession in the wife being depressed and unwell, and on each occasion the man was obliged to cope with everything at home - not with entirely good grace.)
Node ASC/Uranus MC. Node IC/Moon ASC. ( The Uranus degree is shared by both partners. The events carrying the first pair as DPAs have each year recently been notable social occasions that have left a deeper impression than usual on a man not given to company. One year it was with the scientific fraternity, the following year with one of our finer astrologers. Another year a new friend arrived for the evening and stayed for hours discussing ideas, electronics and hi-fi. On each occasion the introduction came through the wife.)
ASC IC/Sun ASC. ( She is the one who tends to interact with her environment and others within it, while he identifies far more strongly with his roots and private surroundings at home.)
MC DESC/Neptune 1C. ( This again involves her Sun on his MC. It suggests that marriage to this woman contributes to a basic insecurity. In a way he feels that this marriage is her career, yet his sense of direction is nebulous thorugh an implied conflict of ideals. Perhaps he is more influenced by her ideals than is always noticeable. She tends to form idealised relationships with others - into which she partially escapes from her own uncertainty within the marriage - and the dates characterised by this pair of AAs have been marked by confrontation between alternative partners, alternative sets of values, competitive universes.)
It is interesting to note that this couple chose to move into a latitude where the shared Uranus factor is very active in AAs; their life is unusual and at times hectic. Their honeymoon took them much further North, away from this influence, where their Suns simultaneously occupied MC and ASC once a day. Another holiday which proved very restful, quiet, and steadying to both, was in a latitude just far enough North to bring their Saturn degrees on to Angles previously associated with Uranus.


...Who are now separated ( and later divorced - Pam 2010 ), were divided in part by professional jealousy. Both were fine pianists, but her Venus MC was attended by the rising of his South Node. He could not bring himself to make such sacrifices of self-interest as seemed necessary to the fulfilment of his wife's gifts; he prevented her instead from ever taking her LRAM or practising uninterrupted. Also associated with this Ruling Venus was his Mars, and his rising Pluto. He dominated her completely, emotionally and musically, out of a sense of threat. His S. Node also rose at the 1C of her Jupiter. At a material level, providing for home comforts that at times amounted to splendour, he could rise to an appearance of selflessness . . . but when it came to giving her the musical, inward freedom she needed and deserved, he never quite made it. As her Jupiter set, his Pluto-ASC sat at the 1C. At times this brought influential and close friends and colleagues into her life; he tried to manage her affairs in this quarter, too, but events would take over, and he would be left to cope with a family set-up his emotional conditioning could not tolerate. With her freedom-seeking Uranus at culmination, the weight of his Saturn would lie on the setting degree - the partner deserted, or forbidding, or attempting yet again to impose conditions and claim responsibility. Once she realised how much she had allowed him to deny her, he lost her a hundred times over before the final wrench apart . . . and even then there he was, making his own mark on her new home with hammer and nails and screwdriver, unable to let go. His North Node is close to her Saturn; this inhibiting and estranging conjunction culminates when her MC rises; whenever she wanted to progress, there he was, pinning her down holding her back, organising her life. His Capricorn Moon held the MC opposite his Mercury-Venus conjunction in Cancer whenever her Aries Mercury rose and her Ascendant was setting; no relationship was sacred or free from interference of some kind; conversely his own aspirations toward other women provoked in her much worry and anger and manoeuvring and rushing to intimate friends for justified support. His Sun set as hers reached the 1C; for years it was he who made all the friends, had all the affairs, while she was stuck at home.

It is interesting to note with this couple that she, the wife, has ten pairs of Associate Angles in her pattern, for the latitude at which they have lived all these years and in which both were born - give or take ½° - yet the husband has only two. One wonders if this contributes to his sense of fatedness, already strong in the natus with Pluto rising, in that his natal degrees mainly associate with those of other people, implying that key events in his life can rarely arise out of autonomous decision or action, but only from a combination of himself and a second entity. His wife has far more of her natal factors angular in association with others in her chart and would seem to have a greater chance of making independent decisions, of acting without undue reference to the interests of others, even where other people or considerations are involved. This is a theory of course, that needs testing, but one that could if validated cast an interesting light on an individual's destiny.


Prior to the 1974 General Electon, the DPAs of the two main party leaders were examined for any significant contacts on the day of the poll.
Mr Edward Heath's DPASC was in 8° Virgo, square to T Neptune, but opposite T Jupiter. Mr Harold Wilson's DPASC was in 19° Capricorn, directly opposite T Saturn in 18°30' Cancer. Would the Jupiter presence on the horizon bring good fortune to Heath, and Saturn bring disappointment to Wilson? ... or would the 7th cusp, the DESC, position of these bodies imply that success or defeat respectively would be the lot of the opposing party? Clearly, the latter was the appropriate implications as events turned out; but there was a flavour of the first idea as well, as the Labour party, led by Wilson, polled far, far fewer votes than had been predicted by expert and popular opinion . . . hence disappointment for the leader, and the prospect of tough opposition in difficult political and economic conditions. Heath put on a brave face; and may win extra support from the minority parties.

* * * * * * * * * * * *

Here the article ends! It has been a most rewarding exercise, revisiting this essay on DPAs, because it is a long time since I had a good look at their effects in synastry, or the DPA arcs. Time for some extra work...

Pam Crane, August 2010